This page provides a comprehensive list of ingredients that are deemed halal, haram, or have conditional terms, according to Shi’a Fiqh. You may browse or use the search bar to find an item. If there are any items missing or inaccurate, please contact us.

Click here to watch a detailed seminar on halal/haram items, practical guidelines, what to look for, what to ask, what to avoid, FAQs, etc.

Click here for a list of halal restaurants in the Greater Toronto Area.

A

Acetic Acid
Plant or Chemical Source: Halal
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Halal but advisable to avoid
(AKA E260)
Adipic Acid
Halal
Agar Agar
Halal
Ahlul Kitab Slaughtered Meat
Haram
Allantoin
Plant or Chemical Source: Halal
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Halal but advisable to avoid
Allis Shad Fish
Halal
Anchovy fish
Halal
(AKA Anchovies)
Antelope
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Haram
Apes
Haram
(AKA monkey, gorilla, etc)
Apocarotenal
Updated Oct 2022
Plant-derived but the production process involves gelatin or lard.

If lard is used: Haram
If haram gelatin is used: Haram
If halal gelatin is used: Halal
Unknown production: Halal
(AKA C30, E160e)
Apple Cider
Non-alcoholic: Halal – predominantly in North America. Simply pressed apples.
Alcoholic: Haram – predominantly outside North America. Fermented alcoholic drink.
Apple Cider Vinegar
Halal
Arugula
Halal
B

Ballerus Fish
Halal
Balsamic Vinegar
Updated Oct 2022
Contains natural alcohol due to fermentation process: Halal
Contains najis alcohol manually added during production: Haram
Contains non-najis alcohol manually added during production: Halal if absorbed into the food during production
Unknown Alcohol Source: Halal but advisable to avoid
Barbel Barbus FIsh
Halal
Barley Malt Extract
Halal
Barramundi Fish
Halal
Basa Fish
Haram
Bass Fish
Halal
Bat
Haram
Bear
Haram
Beer Batter Fish
Haram
Big Eye Catalufe Fish
Halal
Birds of Prey
Haram
(AKA eagle, hawk, buzzard, harrier, osprey, owl, falcon, vulture, etc)
Bitterling Fish
Halal
Black Bass Fish
Halal
Bleak Fish
Halal
Boar
Haram
Bovine
Term refers to ‘cow’

Zabiha Cow Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Cow Source: Haram
Unknown Cow Source: Halal but advisable to avoid
Bream Fish
Halal
Brill Fish
Halal
Buffalo
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Haram
Butter Fish
Halal
C

Camel
Halal
Carbon Black
Updated Oct 2022
Plant Source: Halal
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Halal
(AKA E153)
Carmine
Updated Oct 2022
Ingredient made from haram insects

Raw or unprocessed form: Haram

Istihala (transformation) takes place during production, and it loses it’s original form in the eyes of the people, OR it is added in a minimal amount that is absorbed into the food: Halal

(AKA Cochineal, natural red 4, E120, crimson lake)
Carp Fish
Halal
Carrageenan
Halal
Casein
Updated Oct 2022
Plant Source: Halal
Halal Animal Source: Halal
Haram Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Halal
Cat
Haram
Catfish
Haram
Caviar
Updated Oct 2022
Halal Fish Source: Halal
Haram Fish Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Haram
Cheese
Updated Oct 2022
Cheese contains enzymes and/or rennet

Refer to ‘Rennet’ and ‘Enzymes’ sections for more details
Chicken
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Haram
Chocolate Liqueur
Haram
(Different from ‘Chocolate Liquor’ which is Halal)
Chocolate Liquor
Halal
(Different from ‘Chocolate Liquer’ which is Haram)
Chub Fish
Halal
Clam
Haram
Coal Fish
Halal
Cod Fish
Halal
Collagen
Updated Oct 2022
Plant or Chemical Source: Halal
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Halal Fish Source: Halal
Haram Fish Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Halal
Common Nose Fish
Halal
Confectioner’s Glaze
Updated Oct 2022
Confectioner’s Glaze is primarily produced from Shellac, which is haram.

Plant or Vegetable Source: Halal
Shellac Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Haram

(AKA food grade glaze, pharmaceutical glaze, resinous glaze)
Not necessarily the same as doughnut glaze
Corn Syrup
Halal
(AKA Dextrose)
Cow
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Haram
(AKA beef, veal)
Crab
Haram
Crawfish
Haram
(AKA Crayfish)
Cream of Tartar
Haram
(AKA potassium bitartrate)
Crocodile
Haram
D

Dace Fish
Halal
Danube Roach Fish
Halal
Deer
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Haram
Diazolidinyl Urea
Plant or Chemical Source: Halal
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Halal but advisable to avoid
Diglyceride
Plant Source: Halal
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Halal but advisable to avoid
Disodium Inosinate
Updated Oct 2022
Plant Source: Halal
Alcohol Source: Haram
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Halal but advisable to avoid
(AKA Disodium 5-Inosinate, Sodium 5-Inosinate, IMP, E631)
Dog
Haram
Dolphin
Haram
Donkey
Zabiha Animal Source: Makruh
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Haram
Duck
Updated Oct 2022
Zabiha Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Haram
E

Eel
Haram
Elephant
Haram
Enzymes
Plant Source: Halal
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Halal but advisable to avoid
(AKA chymosin, chymotrypsin, trypsin, catalase)
Erythritol
Halal
Ethyl Alcohol
Ay. Sistani:
Trace amounts as a product ingredient: Halal
Larger amounts: Haram

All other Maraja:
Najis and Haram
(AKA Ethanol)
F

Fish Oil
Updated Oct 2022
Halal Fish Source: Halal
Non-Halal Fish Source: Haram
Unknown Fish Source: Haram
Fish Sauce
Updated Oct 2022
Generally produced with anchovy

Halal Fish Source: Halal
Haram Fish Source: Haram
Unknown Fish Source: Haram
Flounder Fish
Halal
Food from those who don’t pay khums
Not a valid judgement to make. A person’s food is not deemed impermissible solely upon this criteria, and you are not allowed to ask.
Frog
Haram
G

Gelatin
Plant Source: Halal
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Halal Fish Source: Halal
Chemical Transformation (Istihala): Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Haram Fish/Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Halal but advisable to avoid

Prescription Medicine with gelatin capsule: Halal if no alternative available
Non-prescription (vitamins, supplements etc) with gelatin capsule: Haram, find an alternative

(Ay. Khoei considers all gelatin halal based on istihala)
(Ay. Sistani leaves the judgement whether or not the transformation was sufficient upon the individual.)
(AKA Gelatine)
Gilt Head Fish
Halal
Giraffe
Haram (based on Ihtiyat)
Glycerin
Plant or Chemical Source: Halal
Zabiha Animal: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal: Haram
Unknown Source: Halal but advisable to avoid
(AKA Glycerine, E422, Glycerol)
Goat
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Haram
Gochujang
Alcohol is produced during fermentation.

Ay. Sistani:
Trace amounts of alcohol: Halal
Larger amounts: Haram

All other Maraja: Najis and Haram
Gold
Gold Foil: Halal to consume in small amounts
Solid Gold Tableware: Haram to use to eat or drink. Includes spoons, forks, plates, cups, etc
Gold Plated Tableware: Halal to use to eat or drink.
Grape Jam
Halal
Grape Juice
Unfermented Grape Juice: Halal
Fermented Grape Juice: Haram
Unknown Fermentation Status: Advisable to avoid. Suspect due to likely fermentation during production.
Grasshoppers
Haram
Gravy
Plant or Vegetable Source: Halal
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Haram
Grayling Fish
Halal
Guar Gum
Halal
(AKA Guaran)
H

Haddock Fish
Halal
Halibut Fish
Halal
Hemp Seed
Halal
Hemp Seed Oil
Halal
Herring Fish
Halal
Horse
Zabiha Animal Source: Makruh
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Haram
I

Iguana
Haram
Imidazolidinyl Urea
Plant or Chemical Source: Halal
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Halal but advisable to avoid
Imitation Crab
Updated Oct 2022
Made from processed fish of various types

Halal Fish Source: Halal
Haram Fish Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Haram

Crab Extract is commonly used for flavor. If so: Haram
Insects
Updated Oct 2022
Raw or unprocessed form: Haram

When used as an ingredient, Istihala (transformation) takes place during production, and it loses it’s original form in the eyes of the people: Halal

Excludes Locusts, halal as an exception
K

Kangaroo
Haram (based on Ihtiyat)
Kidney
Makruh
Kingfish Fish
Halal
Kombucha Tea
Alcohol is produced during fermentation.

Ay. Sistani:
Trace amounts of alcohol: Halal
Larger amounts: Haram

All other Maraja: Najis and Haram
Kosher Ingredients
Not equivalent to halal
Kosher Meat
Haram
Krill
Haram
Krill Oil
Haram
L

Lactic Acid
Halal
Lanolin
Halal
(AKA wool fat, wool wax, wool grease)
Lard
Haram
Lecithin
Plant or Chemical Source: Halal
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Halal but advisable to avoid
(AKA E322)
Lipase
Plant or Chemical Source: Halal
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Halal but advisable to avoid
Liver
Makruh
Lizard
Haram
Lobster
Haram
Locust
Halal
M

Machine Slaughtered Meat
Halal
(as long as Islamic guidelines are followed and/or certified)
Mackerel Fish
Halal
Mahi Mahi Fish
Halal
Maquerel Fish
Halal
Marijuana
Prescription Use: Halal
Voluntary Non-prescription Use: Haram
Recreational use: Haram
External application (ointments, lotions, etc): Halal
(AKA weed)

Visit al-m.ca/marijuana for more info
Marsala Wine
Haram
Marshmallow
Usually contains gelatin. See ‘Gelatin’ section for guidelines on permissibility
Medicine with Haram Ingredients
Prescription Medicine: Find an alternative product. If no alternatives are available, then it is permissible.
Voluntary Non-prescription (vitamins, supplements etc): Haram, find an alternative.
Methylparaben
Halal
(AKA E218)
Minnow Fish
Halal
Mollusk
Haram
Monoglyceride
Plant Source: Halal
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Halal but advisable to avoid
Monosodium glutamate
Halal
(AKA MSG, E621)
Mouthwash
Most mouthwash contain alcohol.

Ay. Sistani: Considers it haram but not najis, therefore you may gargle and rinse with water afterwards, without any swallowing.

All other maraja: Haram and najis. Thoroughly rinse your mouth 3 times if used.
Mule
Zabiha Animal Source: Makruh
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Haram
Mullet Fish
Halal
Mussels
Haram
N

Nutmeg
Halal
O

Octopus
Haram
Ostrich
Updated Oct 2022
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Haram
Oxtail
Updated Oct 2022
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Haram
Oyster
Haram
Oyster Sauce
Haram
P

Parabens
Halal
Peacock
Updated Oct 2022
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Haram
Pectin
Halal
Pepsin
Haram
Perch Fish
Halal
Pikeperch Fish
Halal
Pilchard Fish
Halal
Pollock Fish
Halal
Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids
Plant Source: Halal
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Halal but advisable to avoid
(AKA PGE, E475)
Polysorbate
Plant or Chemical Source: Halal
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Halal but advisable to avoid
(AKA Polysorbate 20, Polysorbate 40, Polysorbate 60, Polysorbate 80)
Polyvinyl Alcohol
Halal
Pomfret Fish
Halal
Pond Loach Fish
Halal
Pope Fish
Halal
Porgy Fish
Halal
Pork
Haram
Prawn
Halal
Propylene Glycol
Plant or Chemical Source: Halal
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Halal but advisable to avoid
Propylparaben
Plant or Chemical Source: Halal
Q

Quail
Updated Oct 2022
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Haram
R

Rabbit
Haram
Red Snapper Fish
Halal
Red Wine Vinegar
Halal
Rennet
Updated Oct 2022
Plant Source: Halal
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Haram Animal Source: Haram
Non-Zabiha Halal Animal Source: if extracted in a liquid or semi-liquid form (moderm production methods):Halal
Non-Zabiha Halal Animal Source: if extracted in a solid or semi-solid form (traditional production methods): Haram unless it is washed
Unknown Source: Halal
(AKA Rennin)
Reptiles
Haram
Rice Vinegar
Updated Oct 2022
Halal
Rice Wine
Ay. Sistani:
Trace amounts as a product ingredient: Halal
Larger amounts: Haram

All other Maraja: Najis and Haram
Rice Wine Vinegar
Updated Oct 2022
Halal
Roach Fish
Halal
Rodents
Haram
(AKA rats, mouse, hamster, etc)
Rooibos Tea
Halal
Rudd Fish
Halal
Ruffe Fish
Halal
S

Salmon Fish
Halal
Sander Fish
Halal
Sardine Fish
Halal
Scavenger Birds
Haram
(AKA vulture, crow, buzzard, condor, etc)
Sea Bass Fish
Halal
Seaweed
Halal
Shark
Haram
Shellac
Haram
Shellfish
Haram
Shortening
‘Pure Vegetable Shortening’: Halal
‘Vegetable Shortening’: Suspect. Labelling laws only require the predominant ingredient to be mentioned, even if animal sources are included.
Shrimp
Halal
Silver
Silver Foil: Halal to consume in small amounts
Solid Silver Tableware: Haram to use to eat or drink. Includes spoons, forks, plates, cups, etc
Silver Plated Tableware: Halal to use to eat or drink.
Smelt Fish
Halal
Smoking
Ay Makarim Shirazi: Haram

Ay Khomeini: Those who are addicted may continue, non-smokers cannot start

All other Maraja: If one considers cigarettes harmful, then it’s haram (onus on the individual)

Same rulings apply to e-cigarettes (AKA e-cigs, vaping, vape, etc)
Snail
Haram
Snake
Haram
(AKA Viper, Rattlesnake, Cobra, Mamba, etc)
Soda Pop
Halal
(AKA Pepsi, Coca Cola, etc)
Soil
Haram
(AKA dirt, earth)
Sole Fish
Halal
Soy Sauce
Updated Oct 2022
Halal
(AKA Soya Sauce)
Spirit Vinegar
Updated Oct 2022
Halal
Squid
Haram
Stearic Acid
Plant or Chemical Source: Halal
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Halal but advisable to avoid
Stingray
Haram
Sugar Alcohol
Halal
Swordfish
Updated Oct 2022
Haram
T

Tapioca
Halal
Tartar Sauce
Halal
Taurine
Updated Oct 2022
Plant or Chemical Source: Halal
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Dairy Source: Halal
Halal Fish Source: Halal
Haram Fish Source: Haram
Unknown: Better to avoid
Tench Fish
Halal
Tilapia Fish
Halal
Trout Fish
Halal
Truffle
Halal
Tuna Fish
Halal
Turkey
Updated Oct 2022
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Haram
Turtle
Haram
V

Vanilla Extract
Natural Vanilla Extract: Haram
Artificial Vanilla Extract: Halal

Ay. Sistani:
Trace Amounts of Natural Vanilla Extract as a product ingredient: Halal
Larger amounts: Haram
Vanillin
Halal
W

Whale
Haram
Whey
Updated Oct 2022
Produced with Pepsin: Haram
Produced with Rennet: Refer to ‘Rennet’ section for more details
Unknown production: Better to avoid
(AKA Whey Protein, Whey Powder)
White FIsh
Halal
Wine Vinegar
Halal
Worm
Haram
Y

Yak
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Haram
Z

Zander Fish
Halal
Zebra
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Haram
Zope Fish
Halal