This page provides a comprehensive list of ingredients that are deemed halal, haram, or have conditional terms, according to Shi’a Fiqh. You may browse or use the search bar to find an item. If there are any items missing or inaccurate, please contact us.

Click here to watch a detailed seminar on halal/haram items, practical guidelines, what to look for, what to ask, what to avoid, FAQs, etc.

Click here for a list of halal restaurants in the Greater Toronto Area.

A

Acetic Acid
Plant or Chemical Source: Halal
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Halal but advisable to avoid
(AKA E260)
Adipic Acid
Halal
Agar Agar
Halal
Ahlul Kitab Slaughtered Meat
Haram
Allantoin
Plant or Chemical Source: Halal
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Halal but advisable to avoid
Allis Shad Fish
Halal
Anchovy fish
Halal
(AKA Anchovies)
Antelope
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Haram
Apes
Haram
(AKA monkey, gorilla, etc)
Apocarotenal
Plant-derived but the production process involves gelatin or lard.

If lard is used: Haram
If haram gelatin is used: Haram
If halal gelatin is used: Halal
(AKA C30, E160e)
Arugula
Halal
B

Ballerus Fish
Halal
Balsamic Vinegar
Halal
Barbel Barbus FIsh
Halal
Barley Malt Extract
Halal
Basa Fish
Haram
Bass Fish
Halal
Bat
Haram
Bear
Haram
Beer Batter Fish
Haram
Big Eye Catalufe Fish
Halal
Birds of Prey
Haram
(aka eagle, hawk, buzzard, harrier, osprey, owl, falcon, vulture, etc)
Bitterling Fish
Halal
Black Bass Fish
Halal
Bleak Fish
Halal
Boar
Haram
Bovine
Term refers to ‘cow’

Zabiha Cow Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Cow Source: Haram
Unknown Cow Source: Halal but advisable to avoid
Bream Fish
Halal
Brill Fish
Halal
Buffalo
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Haram
C

Camel
Halal
Carbon Black
Plant Source: Halal
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
(AKA E153)
Carmine
Haram insect ingredient.

Note that other sources have incorrectly marked this item as halal

(AKA Cochineal, natural red 4, E120, crimson lake)
Carp Fish
Halal
Carrageenan
Halal
Casein
Plant Source: Halal
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Cat
Haram
Catfish
Haram
Caviar
Halal Fish Source: Halal
Haram Fish Source: Haram
Cheese
Cheese contains enzymes and/or rennet

Plant or Chemical Source: Halal
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Halal but advisable to avoid
Chicken
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Haram
Chocolate Liqueur
Haram
(Different from ‘Chocolate Liquor’ which is Halal)
Chocolate Liquor
Halal
(Different from ‘Chocolate Liquer’ which is Haram)
Chub Fish
Halal
Clam
Haram
Coal Fish
Halal
Cod Fish
Halal
Collagen
Plant or Chemical Source: Halal
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Halal
Common Nose Fish
Halal
Confectioner’s Glaze
Confectioner’s Glaze is primarily produced from Shellac, which is haram.

Plant or Vegetable Source: Halal
Shellac Source: Haram

(AKA food grade glaze, pharmaceutical glaze, resinous glaze)
Not necessarily the same as doughnut glaze
Corn Syrup
Halal
(AKA Dextrose)
Cow
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Haram
(AKA beef, veal)
Crab
Haram
Crocodile
Haram
D

Dace Fish
Halal
Danube Roach Fish
Halal
Deer
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Haram
Diazolidinyl Urea
Plant or Chemical Source: Halal
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Halal but advisable to avoid
Diglyceride
Plant Source: Halal
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Halal but advisable to avoid
Dog
Haram
Dolphin
Haram
Donkey
Zabiha Animal Source: Makruh
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Haram
Duck
Zabiha Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Source: Haram
E

Eel
Haram
Elephant
Haram
Enzymes
Plant Source: Halal
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Halal but advisable to avoid
(AKA chymosin, chymotrypsin, trypsin, catalase)
Erythritol
Halal
Ethanol
Haram
Ethyl Alcohol
Ay. Sistani:
Trace amounts as a product ingredient: Halal
Larger amounts: Haram

All other Maraja:
Najis and Haram
F

Fish Oil
Halal Fish Source: Halal
Non-Halal Fish Source: Haram
Unknown Fish Source: Halal but advisable to avoid
Flounder Fish
Halal
Food from those who don’t pay khums
Not a valid judgement to make. A person’s food is not deemed impermissible solely upon this criteria, and you are not allowed to ask.
Frog
Haram
G

Gelatin
Plant Source: Halal
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Halal Fish Source: Halal
Chemical Transformation (Istihala): Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Haram Fish/Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Halal but advisable to avoid

Prescription Medicine with gelatin capsule: Halal if no alternative available
Non-prescription (vitamins, supplements etc) with gelatin capsule: Haram, find an alternative

(Ay. Khoei considers all gelatin halal based on istihala)
(Ay. Sistani leaves the judgement whether or not the transformation was sufficient upon the individual.)
(AKA Gelatine)
Gilt Head Fish
Halal
Giraffe
Haram (based on Ihtiyat)
Glycerin
Plant or Chemical Source: Halal
Zabiha Animal: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal: Haram
Unknown Source: Halal but advisable to avoid
(AKA Glycerine, E422, Glyverol)
Goat
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Haram
Gochujang
Alcohol is produced during fermentation.

Ay. Sistani:
Trace amounts of alcohol: Halal
Larger amounts: Haram

All other Maraja: Najis and Haram
Grape Jam
Halal
Grape Juice
Suspect due to possible fermentation during production.
Advisable to avoid.
Grasshoppers
Haram
Gravy
Plant or Vegetable Source: Halal
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Haram
Grayling Fish
Halal
Guar Gum
Halal
(AKA Guaran)
H

Haddock Fish
Halal
Hemp Seed
Halal
Hemp Seed Oil
Halal
Herring Fish
Halal
Horse
Zabiha Animal Source: Makruh
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Haram
I

Iguana
Haram
Imidazolidinyl Urea
Plant or Chemical Source: Halal
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Halal but advisable to avoid
Imitation Crab
Made from processed fish of various types

Halal Fish Source: Halal
Haram Fish Source: Haram

Crab Extract is commonly used for flavor. If so: Haram

Carmine red food coloring is commonly used on the outside. If so: Haram
Insects
Haram
Includes insect ingredients
Excludes Locusts, halal as an exception
K

Kangaroo
Haram (based on Ihtiyat)
Kidney
Makruh
Kingfish Fish
Halal
Kombucha Tea
Alcohol is produced during fermentation.

Ay. Sistani:
Trace amounts of alcohol: Halal
Larger amounts: Haram

All other Maraja: Najis and Haram
Kosher Ingredients
Not equivalent to halal
Kosher Meat
Haram
Krill
Haram
Krill Oil
Haram
L

Lactic Acid
Halal
Lanolin
Halal
(AKA wool fat, wool wax, wool grease)
Lard
Haram
Lecithin
Plant or Chemical Source: Halal
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Halal but advisable to avoid
(AKA E322)
Lipase
Plant or Chemical Source: Halal
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Halal but advisable to avoid
Liver
Makruh
Lizard
Haram
Lobster
Haram
Locust
Halal
M

Machine Slaughtered Meat
Halal
(as long as Islamic guidelines are followed and/or certified)
Mackerel Fish
Halal
Mahi Mahi Fish
Halal
Maquerel Fish
Halal
Marijuana
Prescription Use: Halal
Voluntary Non-prescription Use: Haram
Recreational use: Haram
External application (ointments, lotions, etc): Halal
(AKA weed)

Visit al-m.ca/marijuana for more info
Marsala Wine
Haram
Marshmallow
Usually contains gelatin. See ‘Gelatin’ section for guidelines on permissibility
Medicine with Haram Ingredients
Prescription Medicine: Find an alternative product. If no alternatives are available, then it is permissible.
Voluntary Non-prescription (vitamins, supplements etc): Haram, find an alternative.
Methylparaben
Halal
(AKA E218)
Minnow Fish
Halal
Mollusk
Haram
Monoglyceride
Plant Source: Halal
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Halal but advisable to avoid
Monosodium glutamate
Halal
(AKA MSG, E621)
Mouthwash
Most mouthwash contain alcohol.

Ay. Sistani: Considers it haram but not najis, therefore you may gargle and rinse with water afterwards, without any swallowing.

All other maraja: Haram and najis. Thoroughly rinse your mouth 3 times if used.
Mule
Zabiha Animal Source: Makruh
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Haram
Mullet Fish
Halal
Mussels
Haram
N

Nutmeg
Halal
O

Octopus
Haram
Ostrich
Halal
Oxtail
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Oyster
Haram
Oyster Sauce
Haram
P

Parabens
Halal
Peacock
Halal
Pectin
Halal
Pepsin
Haram
Perch Fish
Halal
Pikeperch Fish
Halal
Pilchard Fish
Halal
Pollock Fish
Halal
Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids
Plant Source: Halal
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Halal but advisable to avoid
(AKA PGE, E475)
Polysorbate
Plant or Chemical Source: Halal
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Halal but advisable to avoid
(AKA Polysorbate 20, Polysorbate 40, Polysorbate 60, Polysorbate 80)
Polyvinyl Alcohol
Halal
Pomfret Fish
Halal
Pond Loach Fish
Halal
Pope Fish
Halal
Porgy Fish
Halal
Pork
Haram
Prawn
Halal
Propylene Glycol
Plant or Chemical Source: Halal
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Halal but advisable to avoid
Propylparaben
Plant or Chemical Source: Halal
Q

Quail
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
R

Rabbit
Haram
Red Wine Vinegar
Halal
Rennet
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Halal, however, due to modern production processes, it is contaminated and therefore haram.
(AKA Rennin)
Reptiles
Haram
Rice Wine
Ay. Sistani:
Trace amounts as a product ingredient: Halal
Larger amounts: Haram

All other Maraja: Najis and Haram
Roach Fish
Halal
Rodents
Haram
(AKA rats, mouse, hamster, etc)
Rooibos Tea
Halal
Rudd Fish
Halal
Ruffe Fish
Halal
S

Salmon Fish
Halal
Sander Fish
Halal
Sardine Fish
Halal
Scavenger Birds
Haram
(AKA vulture, crow, buzzard, condor, etc)
Sea Bass Fish
Halal
Seaweed
Halal
Shark
Haram
Shellac
Haram
Shellfish
Haram
Shortening
‘Pure Vegetable Shortening’: Halal
‘Vegetable Shortening’: Suspect. Labelling laws only require the predominant ingredient to be mentioned, even if animal sources are included.
Shrimp
Halal
Smelt Fish
Halal
Smoking
Ay Makarim Shirazi: Haram

Ay Khomeini: Those who are addicted may continue, non-smokers cannot start

All other Maraja: If one considers cigarettes harmful, then it’s haram (onus on the individual)

Same rulings apply to e-cigarettes (AKA e-cigs, vaping, vape, etc)
Snail
Haram
Snake
Haram
(AKA Viper, Rattlesnake, Cobra, Mamba, etc)
Soda Pop
Halal
(AKA Pepsi, Coca Cola, etc)
Soil
Haram
(AKA dirt, earth)
Sole Fish
Halal
Soy Sauce
Halal
Squid
Haram
Stearic Acid
Plant or Chemical Source: Halal
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Halal but advisable to avoid
Stingray
Haram
Sugar Alcohol
Halal
T

Tapioca
Halal
Taurine
Plant or Chemical Source: Halal
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Tench Fish
Halal
Tilapia Fish
Halal
Trout Fish
Halal
Truffle
Halal
Tuna Fish
Halal
Turkey
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Turtle
Haram
V

Vanilla Extract
Natural Vanilla Extract: Haram
Artificial Vanilla Extract: Halal

Ay. Sistani:
Trace Amounts of Natural Vanilla Extract as a product ingredient: Halal
Larger amounts: Haram
Vanillin
Halal
W

Whale
Haram
Whey
Halal
Whey Protein
Halal
Wine Vinegar
Halal
Worm
Haram
Y

Yak
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Haram
Z

Zander Fish
Halal
Zebra
Zabiha Animal Source: Halal
Non-Zabiha Animal Source: Haram
Unknown Source: Haram
Zope Fish
Halal